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Re: 10 judges are nuts.



On Mon, 27 Feb 2017 09:57:04 +1000
"James A. Donald" <jamesd AT echeque.com> wrote:

> On 2/27/2017 9:12 AM, juan wrote:
> > 	edison didn't invent the light bulb - despite what right
> > wing ignorant americans believe.
> 
> 
> 1.  Edison and Swan, the owners of the Edison & Swan United Electric 
> Light Company, did invent the light bulb, 

	of course they did no such thing.


	even  wikimierda is a lot more useful than you and your stupid
	lies. 


	"On 24 July 1874, a Canadian patent was filed by Henry Woodward
	and Mathew Evans for a lamp consisting of carbon rods mounted
	in a nitrogen-filled glass cylinder. They were unsuccessful at
	commercializing their lamp, and sold rights to their patent
	(U.S. Patent 0,181,613) to Thomas Edison in 1879" 


	In 1761 Ebenezer Kinnersley demonstrated heating a wire to
	incandescence.[12]

In 1802, Humphry Davy used what he described as "a battery of immense
size",[13] consisting of 2,000 cells housed in the basement of the
Royal Institution of Great Britain,[14] to create an incandescent light
by passing the current through a thin strip of platinum, chosen because
the metal had an extremely high melting point. It was not bright enough
nor did it last long enough to be practical, but it was the precedent
behind the efforts of scores of experimenters over the next 75
years.[15]

Over the first three-quarters of the 19th century many experimenters
worked with various combinations of platinum or iridium wires, carbon
rods, and evacuated or semi-evacuated enclosures. Many of these devices
were demonstrated and some were patented.[16]

In 1835, James Bowman Lindsay demonstrated a constant electric light at
a public meeting in Dundee, Scotland. He stated that he could "read a
book at a distance of one and a half feet". However, having perfected
the device to his own satisfaction, he turned to the problem of
wireless telegraphy and did not develop the electric light any further.
His claims are not well documented, although he is credited in
Challoner et al. with being the inventor of the "Incandescent Light
Bulb".[17]

In 1838, Belgian lithographer Marcellin Jobard invented an incandescent
light bulb with a vacuum atmosphere using a carbon filament.[18]

In 1840, British scientist Warren de la Rue enclosed a coiled platinum
filament in a vacuum tube and passed an electric current through it.
The design was based on the concept that the high melting point of
platinum would allow it to operate at high temperatures and that the
evacuated chamber would contain fewer gas molecules to react with the
platinum, improving its longevity. Although a workable design, the cost
of the platinum made it impractical for commercial use.

In 1841, Frederick de Moleyns of England was granted the first patent
for an incandescent lamp, with a design using platinum wires contained
within a vacuum bulb. He also used carbon.[19][20]

In 1845, American John W. Starr acquired a patent for his incandescent
light bulb involving the use of carbon filaments.[21][22] He died
shortly after obtaining the patent, and his invention was never
produced commercially. Little else is known about him.[23]

In 1851, Jean Eugène Robert-Houdin publicly demonstrated incandescent
light bulbs on his estate in Blois, France. His light bulbs are on
display in the museum of the Château de Blois.[24]

In 1872, Russian Alexander Lodygin invented an incandescent light bulb
and obtained a Russian patent in 1874. He used as a burner two carbon
rods of diminished section in a glass receiver, hermetically sealed,
and filled with nitrogen, electrically arranged so that the current
could be passed to the second carbon when the first had been
consumed.[25] Later he lived in the US, changed his name to Alexander
de Lodyguine and applied and obtained patents for incandescent lamps
having chromium, iridium, rhodium, ruthenium, osmium, molybdenum and
tungsten filaments,[26] and a bulb using a molybdenum filament was
demonstrated at the world fair of 1900 in Paris.[27]

Heinrich Göbel in 1893 claimed he had designed the first incandescent
light bulb in 1854, with a thin carbonized bamboo filament of high
resistance, platinum lead-in wires in an all-glass envelope, and a high
vacuum. Judges of four courts raised doubts about the alleged Göbel
anticipation, but there was never a decision in a final hearing due to
the expiry date of Edison's patent. A research work published 2007
concluded that the story of the Göbel lamps in the 1850s is a
legend.[28]